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? from Greek synekdoche ,meaning "simultaneous understanding", is a figure of speech in which a term is used in one of the following ways: ? Part of something is used to refer to the whole thing , ? The whole thing is used to refer to part of it ? The special for the general ? The general for the special, ? A material is used to refer to an object composed of that material, ? A container is used to refer to its contents

? The farmers were short of hands during the harvest season.(men) ? The poor creature could no longer endure her sufferings.(woman) ? "John Hancock" for the signature of any person ? "He shall think differently," the musketeer threatened, "when he feels the point of my steel."(sword) "he drank the cup". (the cup's contents)

? was a merchant, statesman, and prominent Patriot of the American Revolution. He served as president of the Second Continental Congress and was the first and third Governor of the ? Commonwealth of Massachusetts. He is remembered for his large and stylish signature on the United States Declaration of Independence, so much so that the term "John Hancock"has become, in the United States, a synonym for signature.

? the use of exaggerated terms for the purpose of emphasis or heighlighted effects. e.g 飞流直下三千尺,疑是银河落九天 "An hundred years should go to praise Thine eyes and on thy forehead gaze; Two hundred to adore each breast; But thirty thousand to the rest..." Andrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress She is dying to know what job has been assigned her.

? is a literary device that is the reversal of the syntactic relation of two words . ? One kind of hypallage, also known as a transferred epithet(移就), is the trope or rhetorical device in which a modifier, usually an adjective, is shifted from the noun it logically midifies to a word associated with that noun. The effect often stresses the emotions or feelings of the individual by expanding them on to the environment.

? In his quiet laziness he suddenly remembered that strange word. ? He said "yes" to the question in an unthinking moment. ? "The ploughman homeward plods his weary way, / And leaves the world to darkness and to me
Thomas Gray, "Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard") “quiet laziness”,“unthinking moment”,"weary way" are hypallages

? comes from Greek word (euphemia), meaning "the use of words of good omen", ? A euphemism is a generally harmless word, name, or phrase that substitutes an offensive or suggestive one. Some euphemisms intend to amuse, while others intend to give positive appearances to negative events or even mislead entirely. Euphemisms also often take the place of profanity. The opposite of euphemism roughly equates to dysphemism(粗直语; 粗直语用法)

? to die:to pass away,to leave us;one's heart has stopped beating ? He is out visiting the necessary. ? women wearing comfortable shoes female homosexuality (used on-air by Robin Williams as announcer in Good Morning Vietnam)

? is a figure of speech in which understatement is employed to enhance the impressiveness of what we say or makes it more interesting. An affirmative meaning is expressed by negating its opposite. e.g. The show was far from being a failure.

? is the repetition of the last word of a preceding clause at the beginning of the next sentence. ? 我爱你,你却爱着他 ? "Fear leads to anger; anger leads to hatred; hatred leads to conflict; conflict leads to suffering." (Yoda's gradatio in Star Wars: Episode I)

? the stimulation of sensation produces a mental expression associated with another sensation,such as the hearing of a certain sound induces the visualization of a certain color. It can enhance the vividness and impressiveness of what we express. e.g. Posner lipstick:music to your lips music: sense of hearing; lipstick:sense of vision 我闻着她芳香的呼吸。

? a figure of speech in which sharply contrasting ideas are juxtaposed in a balanced or parallel phrase or grammatical structure. ? The opposing words,phrases,clauses and sentences are roughly equal in length and balanced in contiguous grammatical structure. ? It makes speech more effcetive.

? e.g penny wise, pound foolish ? My fellow Americans, ask not what your country can do for you--ask what you can do for your country. John F.Kennedy An optimist sees an opportunity in every calamity, a pessist sees a calamity in every opportunity.

? or antistrophe repitition of the same word or the groups of word at the end of successive phrases,clauses and sentences ? e.g. ? When I was a child, I spoke as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child. — The Apostle Paul, in the Bible, 1 Cor 13:11 (King James Translation)

? is a stylistic scheme in which conjunctions are deliberately omitted from a series of related clauses ? e.g. ? "Be one of the few,the proud,the Marines" Marines Corps Advertisement 我精疲力尽,回到家,打开门,吃完饭, 躺在床上,蒙头就睡。


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