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2011年中考英语专项指导练习七数词


七、 数 词 ? (一) 知识概要 ?数词用来表示人或物的数目多少和顺序。所以数词主要有两种:基数词,用于计数,如:one, two…而序 数词用于表示位置先后或次序,台:first ? second…其构成法如下:? 阿拉伯数字 基数词 序数词 简写序数词 1 one first 1st 2 two second 2nd 3 three third 3rd 4 four fourth 4th 5 five fifth 5th 6 six sixth 6th 7 seven seventh 7th 8 eight eighth 8th 9 nine ninth 9th 10 ten tenth 10th 11 eleven eleventh 11th 12 twelve twelfth 12th 13 thirteen thirteenth 13th 14 fourteen fourteenth 14th 15 fifteen fifteenth 15th 16 sixteen sixteenth 16th 17 seventeen seventeenth 17th 18 eighteen eighteenth 18yh 19 nineteen nineteenth 19th 20 twenty twentieth 20th 21 twenty-one twenty-first 21st 30 thirty thirtieth 30th 40 forty fortieth 40th 50 fifty fiftieth 50th 60 sixty sixtieth 60th 70 seventy seventieth 70th 80 eighty eightieth 80th 90 ninety ninetieth 90th 100 a(one)hundred hundredth 100th 104 one hundred and four hundred and fourth 104th 1000 a(one) thounsand thounsandth 1000th 10000 ten thounsand ten thounsandth 10000th 1000000 one million millionth 1000000th 基数词与序数词都有一定的构成方法,但都有特殊例外的几个字,所以除了要学会一般构成法之外,还要 特别记熟一些例外。因它们在考试中出现的频率很高。 ? 1 ? 基数词构成结构 ? 21~99 的两位数字, 10 位和个位之间加连字符构成, 89-eighty-nine.?101~999的三位数字, 在 如 由 hundred 加 and 再加二位数或未位数字,如: 101-one hundred and one, 223-two hundred and twenty-three. ?四位以上数字,应从个位起向前数三位加逗号,读作 thousand,再数三位加第二个逗号,读作 million,再数 三位加逗号,读作 billion,其读法如下: ? 1001-one thousand and one ?5386-five thousand, three hundred and eighty-six ?要注意的是 hundred, thousand, million 与 billion 的用法。①前面有别的基数词时,即若干个百、千、百万、十亿时,其本身都不 要加 s,如:three hundred students。 ② 若表示成百,成千或数百,数千时,前面不能有基数词,但其本 身要用复数形式,然后+of+名词复数。如:thousands and thousands of。 (成千上万) ? 2 ? 序数词的构成法 ?序数词除 first, second, third 以外,其余一般在词尾加 th 构成,除一般略有差异的各别数词外,很容易掌 握。其二位数或多位数只将后面的个位数字改为序数词,其前面各位数字均不改变,都用基数词。 ? 3 ? 其他数字表示法 ?小数的小数点读作 point,零读作 o[?u]或 zero,小数点后面的数字按个位基数词依次读出。?分数分 子用基数词, 分母用序数词, 当分子大于 1 时, 分数要在序数词上加 s, 但1/2用 one half, 1 4 用 a quarter. 1 3 读作 one third 而 2 3 读作 two thirds。?百分数(%),读作 per cent (percent),但不论是多少均用作 单数形式不能加 s。?表示日期有两种说法和四种写法,如:2 月 1 号英语表达法为:the first of February 而美语为 February (the) first,但其书写上可有四种写法① February 1 ② February 1st ③ 1st February ④

1/2。 ?倍数的讲法有所不同。 两倍用 twice,而三倍以上用序数词加 times,如: has three times as many books He as I have. ? (二) 正误辨析 ? [误] 1107 should be read as a thousand a hundred as seven. ? [正] 1107 should be read as one thousand one hundred and seven. ? [析] 在读数字时,如:and 前只有百或千时,用 one hundred/ one thousand 还是 a hundred /a thousand 全是可以的。但如果文有百又有千时,则只能用 one 不要用 a。 如果没有 and 时,如:1100 也只能读作 one thousand one hundred 或 eleven hundred. ? [误] I drove about half mile. ? [正] I drove about half a mile. ? [析] 半小时为 half an hour, 半天为 half a day, 半镑为 half a pound, 尽量避免用 half a year, half a month, 要用 six months, two weeks 或 fifteen days 要注意的是 Half of the work is done ? Half of the books are sold. 当 Half 作名词时,其谓语动词要看 of 后面的名词而定。如名词是不可数名词则用单数谓语动词,如是复 数名词时,则要用复数谓语动词。要注意的是一个半的表达法,如:One and a half apples is left on the table. 其名词要用复数,但谓语动词则要用单数。 ? [误] 60 students are playing on the ground. ? [正] Sixty students are playing on the ground. ? [析] 在句首的数字要用文字而不要用阿拉伯数字, 如数字过大则应放于句中, 用阿拉伯数字。 如: There are 166 students playing on the ground. ? [误] He became famous around fifty years old. ? [正] He became famous in his fifties. ? [析] in his fifties 50 多岁时,而 in the fiflies 在 50 年代。 ? [误] There are about two thousands workers in our factory. ? [正] There are about two thousand workers in our factory ? ?[析]几千, 几百的表达法是基数词加 thousand 或加 hundred,而且均不要加 s。 这样的单位还有 dozen(打), score (20 年)等。 ? [误] In the morning there are hundred of old people walking in the park. ? [正] In the morning there are hundreds of old people walking in the park. ? [析] 当表达数百,数千时,要用 hundreds of 和 thousands of 这一结构。 ? [误] The class begins at eight a. m. ? [正] The class begins at 8 a. m. ? [析] 与符号或与缩写的字母连用时一定要用数字,如:43%, 67 ?, No.2… ? [误] Two ? fifth of the books are sold out. ? [正] Two ? fifths of the books are sold out. ? [析] 分数表示法,分子用基数词,分母用序数词,但分子大于 1 时,分母要在序数词后?加 s。 ? [误] Tom was born on July eighteen. ? [正] Tom was born on July eighteenth. ? [析] 月日的表达法有美语和英语两种。? 美语 July 18 读作 July eighteenth ? 英语 July 18th 读作 July the eighteenth ? [误] I'll go to school at 7∶30 a. m. in the morning. ? [正] I'll go to school at 7∶30 a. m/ at 7∶30 in the morning. ? [析] a. m 即表达在早上之意,不要再用 in the morning. ? [误] The film will begin at three quarters past one. ? [正] The film will begin at one quarter to two. ? [析] 大于 30 分钟时不要使用 past,而要用差多少不到几点的 to 来表达。 ? [误] Three time three is nine. ? [正] Three times three is nine. ? [析] times 此处作为"乘"讲一定要加 s。 ?英语中乘除法表达式如下: 算法 种类 例 句 加法 一般 Five and six is eleven. 正式 Five plus six is (equals) eleven. 减法 一般 Eight take away four leaves (is) four. Four from Eight leaves (is) four. 正式 Eight minus four equals (is) four. 乘法 一般 Three fours are twelve 3×4=12 正式 Three times four equals (is) twelve. 一般 Two in to four is two. 正式 Four divided by two equals two.

(三) 例题解析 ? 1 ? - How many students are there in your school, Mike? ?- There are over ___ students in our school. ? A. two thousands B. two thousands of C. two thousand D. two thousand of ? [答案] C. ? [析] 有基数词在前面时 thousand, hundred 等词不能加 s,也不能加 of 结构,只有在 thousands of 时才可以使用。 ? 2 ? John lives on ___ floor. He doesn't use a lift to go up and down. ? A. nineB. the ninthC. ninthD. a ninth ? [答案] B. ? [析] 序数词前加定冠词,nine 与 ninth 的拼写上有一个 e 字母相差别。 ? 3 ? Wu Dong won the girls' ___ race in the school sports meeting last week. ? A. 100 metresB. 100 ? metresC. 100 metreD. 100 ? metre ? [答案] D. ? [析] 数词、名词、形容词等词用连字符连接成的形容词中,名词都不要加 s,如: I have to write a two ? thousand ? word report.而且由连字符组成的形容词只能放于名词前,不能放于名词后,作后置定语,或 用在 be 动词后作表语。 ? 4 ? There are ___ students in our school. ? A. four hundred twentyB. four hundred and twenty ? C. four hundreds twentyD. four hundreds and twenty ? [答案] B. ? 5 ? - How many days are there in a year? ?- There are ___ . ? A. three hundreds and sixty ? five B. three hundreds sixty ? five ? C. three hundred and sixty ? five D. three hundred sixty five ? [答案] C. ? 6 ? We have learned about ___ English words. ? A. nine hundreds B. nine hundred C. nine hundred of D. nine hundreds of ? [答案] B. ? 7 ? Autumn is ___ season of the year. ? A. thirdB. the threeC. thirdsD. the third ? [答案] D. ? 8 ? They are learning ___ now. ? A. Lesson EightB. the eight lesson C. Lesson EiththD. Eighth lesson ? [答案] A. ? [析] 第几课,第几个门……,在英语中有两种说法,①Lesson Two, Gate Two 但要注意每一单词的首 字母要大写。② the second lesson, the second gate 首字母不要大写,并要注意有些缩写的读法。如: ? p. 8-第 8 页(page eight) ?$ 8.50-8.5 美元(five dollars and fifty) ?电话号码 66164532-(six, six, one, six, four five, three, two) ? 9 ? The boy was so hungry that he ate ___ . ? A. three bowls of rices B. three bowl of rice ? C. three bowl of rices D. three bowls of rice ? [答案] D. ? [析] rice 是不可数物质名词,而 bowl 是可数名词。 ? 10 ? There are ___ months in a year. ? A. twelve B. twelf C. twelveth D. twelfth ? [答案] A.


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