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初中6-9 助动词和情态动词

教学内容: 教学内容: 助动词和情态动词 教学要求 要求: 教学要求: 能理解并熟练掌握助动词和情态动词的常见用法 教学重点: 教学重点: 助动词和情态动词的常见用法 教学难点: 教学难点: 表示“猜测”的情态动词的区别 教学步骤: 教学步骤: (共计100分钟) 一、复习(5分钟) Task 1: 让学生用1-2分钟做上次所学语法项目“比较级和最高级”的练习题,检查对该 项目的掌握情况,做完题后,快速收集学生的答案,并作简单讲评。下列试题供参考(教师也 可自行命题): 1. This box is___ that one. A. heavy than B. so heavy than C. heavier as D. as heavy as 2. China is larger than ____ in Africa. A. any other country B. other countries C. the other country D. any country 3. At last he began to cry ___. A. hard and hard B. more hard and more hard C. harder and harder D. less hard and less harder 4. ___ he read the book, ____ he got in it. A. The more; the more interesting B. The less; the more interesting C. The more; the more interested D. More; more interested 5. She knows _______ about history than most people. A. more B. much C. most D. many Key: 1-5 DDCCA 二、导入(25分钟) 采用练讲结合法,分助动词和情态动词等部分分别导入。第一步:先让学生做题,然后让 学生归纳用法。第二步:教师梳理、讲解用法。 I. 导入助动词的用法: A: 助动词do(did)的用法: Task 2: 出示若干试题,让学生快速完成,下面的题供参考:

1. “Can I help you, sir?” “Yes, I bought this MP3 here just yesterday, but it _____ work.” (8) A. didn’t B. couldn’t C. doesn’t D. mustn’t 2. Jim says he _____ to see his grandparents last Sunday. (22) A. did go B. did went C. do want D. goes 3. The classroom is cleaned every day, _____ it? (16) A. doesn’t B. isn’t C. hasn’t D. wasn’t
Key: 1-3 CAB 教师解释并归纳如下几点:

1.助动词do(did)跟动词原形可用在肯定句中,用以加强语气。 (1)助动词be(is, am, are, was, were)可构成进行时态和被动语态, 如: The teacher was talking with him. Chinese is spoken in China. 但以下句子是系表结构,而不是进行时态和被动语态: The book is interesting.

The cup is broken. (2)助动词do(did)可构成疑问句与否定句,以及构成祈使句的否定句,如: “Do you know her?” Don’t speak. Don’t be late. (3)助动词do(did)用在肯定句中可以加强语气,表示“务必”,如: Do come to see me tomorrow. (明天务必来看望我。)
B: 助动词have的用法: Task 3: 出示若干试题,让学生快速完成,下面的题供参考:

“No, I don’t know her.”

1. I usually have breakfast at six. But I _____ it at six on Sundays, because I often get up late. (32) A. haven’t B. have not C. don’t have D. won’t have 2. Helen said that she _____ go home because it was late. (3) A. had to B. must to C. need to D. will 3. If I can’t finish my homework today, I _____ do it on Sunday. (49) A. will have to B. must have to C. need D. maybe 4. “I like the party so much, but I _____ go home. It’s too late.” “What a pity!” (23) A. mustn’t B. have to C. may D. can’t Key: 1-4 CAAB

2.have用作助动词或实义动词,其变化形式不同。 (1)have(has, had)用作助动词时可构成完成时态,如: We have finished our homework. (2) have 用作实义动词时,其疑问式与否定式要借助助动词do,如: “Do you have supper at six?” “No, I don’t have supper at six.”
C: 助动词shall(should), will(would)的用法: Task 4:出示若干试题,让学生快速完成,下面的题供参考:

1. I _____ go to see the film this evening. _____ you like to go with me? (40) A. will, Would B. want, Would C. may, Must D. can, Shall 2. An old man wants to see you, Mr Smith. _____ I tell him to come in now? (46) A. Shall B. Will C. Must D. Would Key: 1-2 AA

3.以shall开头的一般疑问句常以第一、第三人称作主语,用来征求听话人的意见。 助动词 shall(should), will(would)可构成一般将来时态,shall用于第一人称,will用于 第二、第三人称,如: I shall(will) go there.(我将要去那里。)

They will go there. will用作情态动词可表示“意愿”,用于各人称,如: I will go there.(我决定要去那里。) shall用作情态动词可表示说话人的强烈意愿,用于第二、第三人称,如: You(He) shall go there.(你/他一定要去那里。) shall构成的疑问句可用来征求听话人的意见,用于第一、第三人称,表示“我/他做 某事行不行?”如: “Shall I open the window?” (我把窗户打开行吗?) “Yes, please.” “Shall they finish the work today?” (他们一定要在今天把工作做完吗?) “Yes, they shall.”
II. 导入情态动词的用法: A: 情态动词need的用法: Task 5: 出示若干试题,让学生快速完成,下面的题供参考:

1. “Shall I book some seats for the concert?” “____. I’ve already done it.” (4) A. Yes, you may B. No, you mustn’t C. No, you needn’t D. I’d rather not 2. As you don’t look well, you _____ come to the meeting this afternoon. (20) A. needn’t to B. needn’t C. don’t need D. not need 3. “Shall I tell Sally about it?” ”No, you _____. I’ve told her already.” (21) A. shouldn’t B. mustn’t C. needn’t D. can’t 4. “Where is my umbrella?” “It’s fine today. You _____ take an umbrella with you.” (25) A. can’t B. needn’t C. mustn’t D. shouldn’t 5. My mother _____ any help. (45) A. don’t need B. doesn’t need C. needn’t D. need Key: 1-5 CBCBB

1.need用作情态动词或实义动词,其变化形式不同。 (1) need用作情态动词可表示“需要”,主要用在否定句和疑问句中,其过去式仍 为need,以 need(或 must)提问时可用 needn’t 回答,表示“不必”,如: He needn’t go there yesterday. “Need he go there yesterday?” “No, he needn’t.” (2) need还可用作实义动词表示“需要”,可用在肯定句、否定句和疑问句中,其过 去式为needed(注意:在当代英语中多使用need的实义动词形式,而较少使用其情 态动词形式),如: She needs(needed) your help. “Does he need to go there today?” he doesn’t.” “Yes, he does. / No,

He didn’t need to go there yesterday.
B:表示“能力”的情态动词的用法: Task 6:出示若干试题,让学生快速完成,下面的题供参考:

1. Many of the stars _____ because they are too far away from us. (9) A. may not see B. cannot be seen C. mustn’t be seen D. needn’t see 2. “Will you please stay here for the party?” “Sorry, I _____. I’ll have to go home now.” (26) A. mustn’t B. needn’t C. can’t D. won’t 3. My mother _____ make dumplings. She’ll teach me how to make them. (28) A. must B. need to C. should D. can 4. “____ your friend play the guitar?” “Yes, he can, but he can’t play it well. (29) A. Must B. Can C. Should D. Need 5. He _____ read and write at the age of six. (31) A. must B. might C. would D. was able to 6. The little boy _____ hardly write his name. (35) A. can B. may C. must D. will 7. He said that he _____ speak a little English when he was five. (44) A. can B. could C. would D. might 8. He learns English well. He _____ read books in English next year. (50) A. will can B. is able to C. will be able to D. can be able to Key: 1-5 BCDBD 6-8 ABC

2.表示“能力”的can和be able to不可重复使用。 表示“能力”可用情态动词can或be able to。can 用于一般现在时态,could 用于一 般过去时态(注意:can 的否定式为 cannot 或 can’t ,间或也可用 can not),be able to 表示“能够做到”,可用于各种时态,如: I can’t swim. He could ride a bike. We’ll be able to do it next year. I have been able to write letters in English. 但要注意 can 和 be able to 不可重复使用,如不可说: *I can be able to do it now.(要说 I am able to do it now 或 I can do it now.)
C: 表示“请求”和“允许”的情态动词的用法: Task 7: 出示若干试题,让学生快速完成,下面的题供参考:

1. “Let’s go dancing tonight.” “Sorry, I _____. I have to attend a meeting.” (5) A. mustn’t B. may not C. needn’t D. can’t

2. “May I park my car here?” “No, you _____. You should park it over there.” (11) A. mustn’t B. needn’t C. couldn’t D. will not 3. “____ I borrow your MP3?” “Sure. Here you are.” (13) A. May B. Should C. Must D. Would 4. “Could I have a look at the photo of your family, Sam?” “Of course you _____.” (19) A. could B. can C. would D. must 5. “____ you help me carry this box?” ”Certainly.” (37) A. Could B. Should C. Must D. Shall 6. “____ I use your bike?” “Yes, please.” (39) A. Must B. Will C. Can D. Need 7. “Excuse me. Where is the nearest post office?” “Sorry, I don’t know. You _____ go and ask that policeman.” (42) A. may B. must C. need D. have to 8. “Must we clean the room right now?” “No, you _____. You _____ clean it after lunch.” (47) A. needn’t, may B. mustn’t, can C. mustn’t, may D. needn’t, need Key: 1-5 DAABA 6-8 CAA

3.请求对方做事常可用 will you, would you, would you please 等提问。 请求对方做事常用 Will you ...? 提问, 表示客气的请求或意愿可用 Would you ...? 或 Would you please ...? 提问,如: Will(Would) you go to the zoo with me? Would you please help me carry this box? 4.请求听话人允许常用may或can等提问,答语可用may(can)或mustn’t。 请求对方允许常用may或can,较正式的场合常用 may,口语中多用 can,用might和 could可使语气更委婉客气,如: “May I use your pen?” “Can I go now?” “Yes, you may.” “Certainly.” “Yes, you can.”

“Would you help me carry the box?”

D:表示“必须”、“应该”和“不必”等的情态动词的用法: Task 8: 出示若干试题,让学生快速完成,下面的题供参考:

1. “____ I fill in the check-in form(登记表) right now, sir?”


“No, you needn’t. You can complete it this afternoon.” A. May B. Can C. Would D. Must 2. “____ I have to show the school report to my parents, Miss King?” “Yes, you do.” (14)

A. Must B. Do C. Can D. May 3. You _____ be careful with fire when you have a picnic in the forest. It’s too dangerous.(15) A. will B. must C. can D. may 4. You _____ stop when the traffic light is red. (18) A. can B. can’t C. need D. must 5. “Must I wait here now?” “No, you _____. You may be back in half an hour.” (24) A. don’t have to B. mustn’t C. can’t D. shouldn’t 6. You _____ play with fire, Tom. It’s dangerous. (30) A. wouldn’t B. mustn’t C. couldn’t D. needn’t 7. You didn’t do well in the exam. You _____ work harder next time. (33) A. can B. may C. will D. should 8. Look at the sign! We _____ take photos here! (34) A. must not B. need not C. will not D. don’t have to 9. It’s nearly seven o’clock. I think Mary _____ here soon. She’s usually on time. (43) A. have to be B. could be C. would be D. should be 10. To make our hometown more beautiful, you _____ throw rubbish into the river. (48) A. may B. must C. needn’t D. mustn’t 11. If I can’t finish my homework today, I _____ do it on Sunday. (49) A. will have to B. must have to C. need D. maybe Key: 1-5 DBBDA 6-11BDADDA

5.询问听话人是否必须做某事常用must提问,答语可用must, needn’t或don’t have to。 (1)表示“必须”可用must,以may提问时可用 mustn’t 来回答,表示“不行”。此外, must的过去时态仍为must,也可用had to。如: “Must I do it now?” “Yes, you must. / No, you needn’t.” “No, you mustn’t.” “May I watch TV now?”

He said he must(had to) go there at once. (2)表示“应该”或预期“应该”可用should,如: You should work harder next time. I think he should arrive by nine. (3)表示“不得不”可用have to,其疑问式为Do you have to ...?其否定式为 don’t have to,以 must 提问时, 也可以用don’t have to回答(相当于needn’t),如: I have to go now. I’ll have to do the work today. “Do I have to do it now?” “Yes you do. / No, you don’t have to. / No, you

needn’t.” “Must I do it now?” “Yes you must. / No, you needn’t. / No, you don’t have to.”

E:表示“猜测”的情态动词的用法: Task 9: 出示若干试题,让学生快速完成,下面的题供参考:

1. Jim _____ be at home. He phoned me from the farm just now. (2) A. mustn’t B. may not C. can’t D. won’t 2. Theirs is not a strong football team, but they _____ the game because they will do their best in it. (6) A. won B. must win C. might win D. have won 3. “Look! The man at the gate _____ be our headmaster. He is always standing there every morning.” “No, it _____ be him. He is holding a meeting in the office now.” (7) A. must, can’t B. must, mustn’t C. can, can’t D. can, mustn’t 4. Class Three won the football match! _____ it be true? (12) A. May B. Must C. Can D. Will 5. Alice has been in China for several years. She _____ be a big girl now. (17) A. need B. must C. can D. may 6. Look! The light is on. She _____ in the room. (38) A. can be B. must be C. will be D. maybe 7. “Where is Jim?” “He _____ in the garden.” (41) A. playing B. is play C. has played D. may be playing Key: 1-5 CCACB 6-7 BD

6.疑问句和否定句表示猜测“会不会”和“不可能”,要用can而不用must或may。 表示“猜测”可用must, may, might和can。 (1) must表示“必定”,一般用于肯定句,如: He must be in the room.(他一定在房间里。) (2) may表示“可能”,也用于肯定句,语气不如must肯定,如: He may be in the room. (他可能在房间里。) He may come today.(他今天可能会来。) (3) might表示“或许”、“说不定”,也用于肯定句,语气最不肯定,如: He might be in the room. (他说不定在房间里。) (4)疑问句和否定句中常用can和can’t表示“会不会”和“不可能”,如: Can he be in the room? (他会在房间里吗?) He can’t be in the room. (他不可能在房间里。) III. 导入may be和maybe用法的区别:

Task 10:出示若干试题,让学生快速完成,下面的题供参考:

1. “Where’s Lucy?” “I’m not sure. She _____ in the school library.” (1) A. maybe B. must be C. may be D. will be 2. “Where is Mom now?” “I’m not sure. She _____ in the kitchen.” (27) A. maybe B. may be C. can be D. must be Key: 1-2 CB

1.注意may be和maybe用法的区别。 表示“或许”和“可能”还可用maybe,但maybe是副词,只能放在句首或句末,不 能放在谓语动词的位置上,如不可说: *He maybe in the room.(要说 Maybe he is in the room. 或 He is in the room, maybe.)
下面的口诀可以帮助记忆: 常用情态动词的用法:
表示“能力”常用can, 要说“请求”和“允许”, could, might也可用, 回答can, may是“同意”, 请示是否“必须”做, 回答must表“必须”, 不用must来提问, 回答have to是“必须”, be able to可代替, can和may都可以。 语气显得更客气, mustn’t表示“不可以”。 用must提问就可以, needn’t意思是“不必”, 改用have to也可以, don’t have to是“不必”。

三、操练:(50分钟) 做第42~43页的练习一、二、三、四题,将答案写在答题纸上。做题时遇到困难可根据题 目后的数码查阅相应的语法条目。 四、反馈与讲评(15分钟) 三大题分三步进行反馈与讲评,每大题约用5分钟左右。每大题进行的步骤是:先找水平较 低的学生把答案说一下,再让其他学生说一下不同意见,然后教师公布正确答案,并针对学生 做错的题进行简明扼要的讲评。 三大题全部讲评完以后,将学生的答题纸收上来,由教师在课后批改,了解每个学生的学 习情况。 五、总结与布置作业(5分钟) 第一步:简要总结本课所学内容: 1. 助动词 do(did)可构成疑问句与否定句,以及构成祈使句的否定句,助动词 do(did)

跟动词原形可用在肯定句中,用以加强语气。 2.(1)have(has, had)用作助动词时可构成完成时态, (2) have 用作实义动词时,其疑问 式与否定式要借助助动词do。 3. 助动词 shall(should), will(would)可构成一般将来时态,shall用于第一人称,will用 于第二、 第三人称, shall构成的疑问句可用来征求听话人的意见, 用于第一、 第三人称。

4. (1) need用作情态动词可表示“需要”,主要用在否定句和疑问句中,其过去式仍为 need,(2) need还可用作实义动词表示“需要”,可用在肯定句、否定句和疑问句中,其 过去式为needed。 5. 表示“能力”可用情态动词can或be able to。 6.(1)表示“必须”可用must,以may提问时可用 mustn’t 来回答,表示“不行”。 (2)表示“应该”或预期“应该”可用should。 8. 表示“猜测”: (1) must表示“必定”,一般用于肯定句,(2)疑问句和否定句中 常用can和can’t 表示“会不会”和“不可能”。
第二步:布置作业: 1. 整理笔记,复习助动词和情态动词部分的语法条目。 2.整理做错的题,记载入“错题集”。


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