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新课程背景下的湖南高考英语备考策略


新课程背景下的湖南高考英语备考策略
湖南师大附中 蒋立耘

2010 年高考将是湖南省实施高中新课程改革以来的第一次高考,是对三年 改革成果的一次全面检验,意义重大。因此对高考备考工作也提出了新的要求。 我们根据 《2010 年湖南省高考考试说明》 和新课改高考命题研讨会的有关内容, 通过分析、对比找出变化和差异,试图预测 2010 年高考英语科的命题趋势,阐 明主要题型的考查重点和相应的教学复习策略。

一、2010 年湖南高考英语考纲解读 1、2010 年高考湖南卷英语科的命题原则:突出考查语言综合运用能力;重 视真实环境中的语言理解和语言运用;坚持重语篇、重语速、重能力,使学生能 够展示个性和思维的多样性与开放性。体现新课标提出的“适当减少客观题,增 加有助于学生思维表达的主观题”的要求。 2、主要变化: (1)对考生英语能力要求方面的变化。 ①词汇能力要求:词汇要求依据教育部 2003 年 《普通高中英语课程标准(实 验)》的词汇表,并在此基础上增加了约 100 个来自牛津英语教材,但没有列入 该词汇表的高频词。因此,总词汇量的要求为 3600 个左右。 ②阅读能力要求:英语科命题将继续保持较大的阅读量,这对考生英语的流 利程度提出较高要求,能较好地体现试卷的区分度及选拔功能。 ③书面表达能力要求:2010 年高考英语科命题对考生的书面表达能力提出 了较高的要求。不仅要求考生能在一定的语境中准确使用词汇和句型、清楚连贯 地用英语表达自己的意思,还要求考生能根据所读短文进行转述或摘要,并能用 英语恰当地表达自己的情感、态度和价值观。作文写作的开放度将进一步加大, 基本上不再控制写作内容,写作的词数要求也有所提高,不少于 120 词。 (2)试卷方面的变化: ①主客观试题分值比例:全卷客观题,85.5 分,占 57%(减少),主观题 64.5 分,占 43%(增加),(主观题比例在全国各卷中是最高的) ②试卷结构的变化。试卷由听力、英语知识运用,阅读理解、书面表达四部 分组成。 (3)具体变化: ①听力部分:听力部分由两节组成,第一节听对话,选择答案,测试考生理 解口头英语的能力,第二节听录音材料,将试题中的信息补充完整,测试考生获 取、概括、归纳和表达主要信息的能力。该节的主要变化为:取消了原听力试题

中的第一节播放一遍的短对话;加大了听力填空部分的分值,填空题由原先的三 个增加到五个。 ②英语知识运用部分,本部分共三节,测试考生对英语语法、词汇知识和简 单表达形式的掌握情况。第一节语法填空,主要考查考生对基本英语语法知识的 掌握与运用,要求考生能在语境中了解和掌握语法的表意功能,准确运用语法知 识。该节定位为语法填空,将过去的词义辨析等项纳入到后两节中考查,测试目 的更加明确。 第二节为完型填空(I),第三节为完型填空(II)。该部分是试卷变化较大的地 方。考生需完成两篇短文任务(过去为 1 篇)。完型填空(I)为一篇 300 词左右的短 文,要求考生从每个小题所给选项中选出最佳选项。侧重考查考生对语义、语境 和语篇的不同层次的理解。完型填空(II)为一篇 150 词左右的短文,要求考生根 据上下文,在每个空格处填入一个适当的单词。本节侧重考查考生的语感以及语 言的衔接、连贯、结构等语言知识运用能力。完型填空(II)属于主观题的题型, 直接考查考生运用英语语言的能力,使试卷更具开放性和灵活性,可以使考生的 个性和创造性得到更好的展示。 ③阅读理解部分:该部分的主要变化表现在,本部分有 3 篇短文(过去为 4 篇)。要求考生根据所提供短文的内容,从每题所给的选项中选出最佳选项。阅 读理解部分每篇短文的篇幅变长是该部分的另一个变化,这样可减少对所选材料 删节的改写,保证材料的真实和语言的地道。 ④写作部分:第一节阅读短文,按要求填空,要求考生根据所给短文的内容 在每小题的空格里填上适当的单词或短语,每空不超过三个单词。本节要求考生 理解所给短文的主旨大意和关键细节,把握文章的篇章结构和逻辑关系,完成对 所给短文进行转述或摘要。主要考查考生获取信息和处理信息以及用英语进行思 维和表达的能力。我省自 2005 年起采用该题型,2010 年该试题的形式将更加 多样化,有表格、流程图或者摘要等多种形式,覆盖的文体也更加广泛。 第二节要求考生阅读文章后,根据各小题的具体要求,简要回答问题。主要 考查考生用简单的句子对所读短文的主要信息进行转述的能力。 第三节写作依据教育部 2003 年《普通高中英语课程标准(实验)》中的“语言 技能目标(八级)”写作要求,要求考生根据提示与要求写一篇不少于 120 词左右 的短文。 ⑤试卷指导语的变化,全卷试题指导语将全部使用英文。(过去只有上海卷 用)

2010 年湖南高考英语命题趋势分析:由于新课程在湖南第一次实行,尽管 英语科在试卷结构和能力要求等方面有较大的变化,但不可能一下子变得面目全 非。高考命题的基本原则是:体现理念,突出特色,平稳过渡。因此,今年高考 湖南英语卷难度系数会控制在 0.5—0.55 之间。

二、2010 年湖南高考英语样卷解读

1、听力 考试内容和要求:要求考生听懂有关日常生活中所熟悉话题的简短对话和独 白。考生应能: ① ② ③ ④ ⑤ ⑥ 理解主旨和要义; 获取事实的具体信息; 对所听内容的背景、说话者之间的关系等进行简单的推理; 理解说话者的意图、观点和态度; 识别不同语气所表达的不同情感; 听懂有关熟悉话题的讨论和谈话并能记录要点。

这 6 条考试内容和要求在 《2010 年湖南高考英语样题》 中得到充分的体现。 样题中的简单推理题多达 4 个。 例 1:(样卷 4)When is the museum open? A. Saturday and Sunday. B. Monday through Friday. C. Sunday through Saturday. 答案为 B。

(听力原文:It’s open just during the week, not on Saturdays and Sundays.) 例 2 (样题 5) : How long will it take the man to get to work by underground? A. About 30 minutes. B. About 60 minutes. C. About 90 minutes. 答案为 B。

(听力原文:M: It took me one and a half hours to drive to the office today. The traffic was so heavy! W: If you take the underground, you can save at least 30 minutes. ….) 例 3:(样题 9)What do we know about the man? A. He is going abroad. B. He has bought a car. C. He needs to save money. 答案为 C。

(听力原文:M: I want to buy a car, and that’s going to take every penny I’ve got.) 例 4:(样题 14)Which of the following best describes Mr. Clark? A. Smart. B. Easy-going.

C. Humorous.

答案为 B。

(听力原文:M: He is great. But I think he speaks too softly. W: He does speak quietly, but I like him. He’s the kind of teacher you can talk to really easily.)

除了推理题外,样题中获取事实细节题的设问有所改变。首次出现了“Which of the following is true about the man?”这样的问题。 例 5:(样题 10)Which of the following is true about the man? A. He is good at ball games. B. He enjoys playing sports. C. He likes sports magazines. 答案为 C。

(听力原文:M: Are you kidding? I’m terrible! But I love to watch sports. I go to football and baseball games all the time. And I buy three or four different sports magazines every week.)

听力考试内容和要求的第⑤条“识别不同语气所表达的不同情感”在样题中 也有体现。这一条在《普通高等学校招生全国统一考试大纲说明 2010 年版》中 没有,但在《普通高等学校招生全国统一考试大纲说明 2010 年版湖南卷》中有 明确的阐述。 例 6:(样题 11)How does the woman feel about the man's hobbies? A. Surprised. B. Doubtful. C. Excited. 答案为 A。

(听力原文:M: Are you kidding? I’m terrible! But I love to watch sports. I go to football and baseball games all the time. And I buy three or four different sports magazines every week. W: Wow. Really!)

听力考试内容和要求的第⑥条 “听懂有关熟悉话题的讨论和谈话并能记录 要点”在前几年的高考题中出现。但以往高考题中摘录信息题的数量少,而且是 细节信息。在 2010 年的样卷中信息摘录题目变化大,表格的设置呈多样性,并 出现了归纳总结性的题目。如: Sample 1 School Field Trip Permission Form Name: XXXXXX Class : Biology 301

Destination: Day & Date: 18 :

The

16

Wetland 17

Saturday,

Agriculture Hall at 8 a.m. Stern Hall at to bag lunch and 19 20

Return: Things bring: Sample 2 At Dale's Health Farm I. Diet

· Foods : Only fruit, vegetables, fish and chicken ; no 16 · Drinks: Only one glass of red wine at lunch time II. Exercises · 17 : needed as exercise can be dangerous · Activities: mostly light exercises and swimming III . 18

· TV : not available · Newspapers: delivered daily and can be sent · Books: can be borrowed from the library 20 . 19 on demand

Sample1 和 Sample 2 的第 18 题就是主要信息的归纳总结,要求从听到的 内容进行信息转化,考查考生“运用英语获取信息、处理信息,以及分析问题和 解决问题的能力”。(S1: Departure; S2: Recreation) 总之,2010 年湖南高考英语样卷听力材料的内容和听力题目的设置都加大 了难度,应该引起广大教师的注意。

2、英语语言知识运用 该部分共分三节,测试考生对英语语法、词汇知识和简单表达形式的掌握情 况。语法填空继续坚持了“突出语境,强化语义,注重运用”的原则,对语法基础 知识在特定语境中的特殊用法进行了考查。样卷中继续保持不再出现“词义辨析 题”和“交际用语题”的特点,更加侧重对考生基本语法知识运用能力的测试。主要 特点有: ①内容覆盖面广,涉及了中学英语基础语法知识的各项重要内容,重点突 出。以动词为主的时态、语态、非谓语动词、情态动词和主谓一致等共有 11 道

题(22 题、24 题、25 题、26 题、27 题、29 题、30 题、31 题、32 题、33 题、 34 题)。虚拟语气明确地出现在样卷的 34 题。 ②强调基础,注重灵活运用。难度较往年在句意理解上大大提高,但没有偏 题、怪题,适合中等以上学生答题。 ③根据新课程要求和《牛津高中英语》教材的特点,个别题目语言鲜活,题 干长,句子结构复杂(30 题、31 题、33 题),这有利于选拔具备英语自主学习 能力的学生。 具体实例说明: 例 1: (样题 22) Not everything that is learned gain a lot of knowledge from experience. A. contained B. is contained C. containing in books;we can also D. is containing

解析:正确答案为 B。该题考查谓语动词的时态和语态。在这个题目中,标 点符号分号(;)起来很大的作用。很多学生选 A 就是忽略了这个标点符号。 例 2:(样题 29)Local news often takes a back seat to national news, which often influenced by international news. A. themselves are B. it is C. itself is D. they are

解析:正确答案为 C。该题考查代词和定语从句中主谓语一致问题。首先要 分清主句和从句,找到非限制性定语从句的先行词 Local news,非限制性定语 从句 which 指代 local news;local news 与 itself 是同位语关系,所以答案是 C。 例 3(样题 30) English teachers : For a more effective role in teaching, they must put forth more effort to improve cross-cultural understanding. A. to play B. playing C. played D. play

解析:正确答案为 A。该题考查动词不定式 for sb. to do sth. 做目的状语的 用法。这种结构出现在 《牛津高中英语》 Module 4 Unit 2 中。“In order for a new sport to be added, a current sport must be dropped.” 例 4:(样题 31)In the listening part, the points made in the lecture you just heard, being sure to specifically explain how they cast doubt on points. A. summarizing summarize B. summarized C. summarize D. to

解析:正确答案为 C。该题考查祈使句的结构。在该题干中出现了好几个动 词(made / heard / being sure / explain / cast), 首先要确定这些动词在题干中 做什么成份,分清其句子结构。这样正确答案就不言而喻了。 例 5: (样题 33) is, everyone agrees, a huge task that the child performs It when he learns to speak, and the fact that he does so in so short a period of time explanation. A. challenges B. challenge C. challenging D. challenged

解析:正确答案为 A。该题考查谓语动词。这道题的题干最长(31 个字), 句子结构也复杂(compound complex sentence)。Sentence structure --Analysis of complicated sentences 在 Module 9 Unit 3 有详细的讲解和练习, 而且《2010 年湖南高考英语考试说明》语法项目 18 就是“并列复合句”。 例 6(样题 34) you had lived 100 years ago, you probably : If school. A. wouldn't graduate C. hadn't graduated B. wouldn't have graduated D. didn't graduate from high

解析:正确答案为 B。该题考查虚拟语气的用法。但以往的高考语法填空题 不考查虚拟语气的具体用法,只要求对其理解。因此,现在要注重虚拟语气的讲 解和练习。

英语语言知识的第二节为完型填空(I),侧重考查考生对语义、语境和语篇的 不同层次的理解。2010 年湖南高考英语样卷完型填空(I)所选材料为一篇记述 文,文章语言自然流畅。短文篇幅为 323 词, 挖空间距最短的是 4 个词(42、43 空之间), 最长间距 44 个单词(37、38 空之间)。所设空格选项以实词为主,其中 动词选择有 5 道小题,名词 4 道,形容词 2 道,连接词 1 道。文章层次分明, 结构严谨,逻辑性强,句子结构不复杂。但是由于是 12 空的完形填空和文章篇 幅的影响,试题设空密度不是很均匀。

英语语言知识的第三节为完型填空(II),侧重考查考生的语感以及语言的衔 接、连贯、结构等语言知识运用能力。2010 年湖南高考英语样卷完型填空(II)所 选材料为一篇说明文,短文字数为 187 词,一般间距为 14 至 19 个单词, 最长 间距 27 个单词(52、53 空之间)。所设空格选项以代词、连词、形容词、副词、 介词、冠词为主。 样题分析: Humans are responsible for causing changes in the environment that hurt animals and species (物种). We take up more space on Earth for our homes and cities. We pollute habitats (栖息地). 48 illegally hunt and kill animals. All of these activities take resources and habitats away 49 plants and animals. Human activity often changes or destroys the habitats that plants and animals need to survive. 50 human populations are growing so fast animals and plants are disappearing many times faster 51 they have in the past 65 million years. Animals and plants have always had a 52 time surviving. Animals became extinct in the past for a wide variety of reasons. In some cases, competition for resources among animals led to extinction and in 53 cases, environmental changes caused extinction.

Fortunately, we humans are beginning to realize our mistakes, 54 we could destroy everything on Earth. We must not only use our knowledge and abilities to manage the Earth, but to make the Earth 55 safe and healthy place where all animals and plants — including humans ourselves — can live. 48. 答案:We。因句子缺主语,再根据前后文语境,此处是指“我们”。 49. 答案:from。此语的语境是“从……拿走或取走……”,故填 from,构成 take sth away from。 50. 答案:Because / As / Since。根据句子的前后逻辑关系,此处为因果 关系,故填 Because / As / Since。 51. 答案:than。根据句中的比较级 faster 可知,此处要用 than。 52. 答案:hard / difficult。此处考查语境理解,指“动植物生存困难”。 53. 答案:other。考查 in some cases….and in other case…结构。 54. 答案:or / otherwise。考查逻辑关系,因前后意思有所转折,表明后面 提出一个相反的情况。 55. 答案:a。此处用不定冠词表泛指。 完形填空(II)的命题思路:①所选材料逻辑性、连贯性要强;②所给的答 案最好具有唯一性;③所设置的空尽量避免动词和名词;④如果设空为形容词和 副词要注意所在的语境,避免出现多种可能的答案;⑤注重 Linking words 的考 查(Module 10 Unit 1 有详细的讲解和练习)。

湖南师大附中第 7 次月考试题命题思路分析: Thanksgiving Day was near. The first grade teacher gave her class a fun assignment --- to draw a picture of something for which they were thankful. Most of the class would celebrate the holiday with turkey and other traditional goodies of the season. These, the teacher thought, would be the themes of most of her students’ art. And they were. Douglas made a different kind of picture, though. When asked to draw a picture of something for which he was thankful, he drew a hand. Nothing else. Just an empty hand. His abstract image captured the imagination of his peers. Whose hand could it be? One child guessed it was the hand of a farmer, because farmers raise turkeys. Another suggested a police officer’s, because the police protect and care about people. Still others guessed it was the hand of God, for God feeds us. And so the discussion went --- until the teacher almost forgot the young artist himself. When the children had gone on to other assignments, she stopped at Douglas’ desk, bent down, and asked him whose hand it was. The little boy looked away and said, “It’s yours, teacher.”

She recalled the times she had taken his hand and walked with him here or there, as she had the other students. How often had she said, “Take my hand, Douglas, we’ll go outside.” Or, "Let me show you how to hold your pencil.” Or, “Let's do this together.” Douglas was most thankful for his teacher's hand. Brushing aside a tear, she went on with her work. The story speaks of more than thankfulness. It says something about teachers teaching and parents parenting and friends showing friendship, and how much it means to the Douglases of the world. They might not always say thanks, but they'll remember the hand that reaches out.

3、阅读 本部分有 3 篇短文(过去为 4 篇) 。要求考生读懂简易的文学作品、科普文章、 公告、说明、广告以及书、报、杂志中关于一般性话题的简短文章,并回答相关 问题。考生应能: ① ② ③ ④ ⑤ ⑥ ⑦ ⑧ 理解语篇和段落大主旨大意; 理解文中具体信息; 根据上下文提供的语境推测生词词义; 做出简单的判断和推理; 理解文段的基本逻辑结构; 理解作者的观点、意图和态度; 识别不同文体特征; 理解文段的文化信息。

2010 年湖南高考英语样卷阅读理解的命题指导思想是:注重语言的实用 性、人文性、时代性。样卷的文章语言和题材鲜活,具有时代感,具体表现在以 下几个方面: ①试题的难度控制适当,虽然减少 1 篇短文,但阅读量不变,而且阅读量有 上升之势,侧重对考生语言流利度的考查。 ②测试从传统的知识立意转向能力立意,更重视对学生情感与态度等相关因 素的考查,更关注处理信息的过程和处理相关信息的能力,更重视获取阅读材料 不同信息的方式以及对其进行优化整合的能力。 ③词汇量大,句子长,阅读有一定的难度。符合《新课标》对词汇和阅读教 学的要求。

4、书面表达 考试内容和要求:要求考生根据所给提示与要求进行书面表达。考生应能:

① ② ③ ④

在一定的语境中准确使用英语语法和词汇; 使用一定词汇和句型,清楚连贯地用英语表达自己的意思; 根据所读短文进行转述或摘要; 用英语恰当地表达自己的情感、态度和价值观。

2010 年湖南高考英语样卷书面表达题型与近几年的湖南高考英语卷基本相 同,只是阅读填空题的文章长了一些(Sample 1 有 378 个单词;Sample 2 有 316 个单词),简答题的材料长了(352 字),问题多了一个,英语作文更具有 开放性。

5、2010 年湖南高考英语样卷给我们带来的启示 ①将 《新课标》 的理念渗透在教学活动中,教学过程中做到既注重语言知识、 语言技能的训练,也注重文化意识、学习策略、情感态度的培养。 ②根据《新课标》要求和《牛津高中英语》教材的特点,进一步调整语法教 学的难度,基础语法的讲解不能过难、过偏。从湖南省自主命题的单项填空来看, 重基础、重运用、重灵活是语法检测的明确方向。 ③加强阅读教学,扩大词汇量。向阅读的深处挖掘,把阅读摆在突出的位置, 选材中要贴近生活实际,对每一个要处理的语篇进行课前深加工,使每一个语篇 都在学生眼中变得有意义、有教育性、能唤醒学生的生活和学习体验。在分析句 子能力方面要过关,能驾驭长难句。要准确理解熟词生意和灵活掌握词性活用, 需要“在用中学、在学中用”,使学生在听说读写综合语言运用中不断体验和感 悟,提高能力。 ④指导书面表达时,可坚持因材施教的原则。对表达较差的可要求从语言的 正确表达开始;对基础好的学生可在用词、句式表达等方面提出更高要求并给予 指导。

三、2010 年湖南高考英语复习应考具体策略 1、最后冲刺词汇备考重点: 验收和强化中级词汇 ①记忆:中级词汇“四会” ②运用:造句,英英释义,搭配 ③扩展:构词法 ④采用多种多样的形式验收词汇,过好词汇关,为提高语言运用能力打下扎 实的基础 词汇分类 动词 accept, achieve, agree, allow, argue, attempt, attend, attract, avoid, ban, beg, beat, behave, benefit, blame, break, carry, catch, cause, change,

choose, compare, decide, delay, deliver, depend, design, destroy, devote, discuss, divide, doubt, encourage, expect, explain, express, fail, fetch, force, forget, form, gather, grow, hear, hurt, imagine, include, interview, lead, lie, lift, mean, move, notice, obey, operate, permit, point, praise, promise, provide, prove, remain, raise, regard, regret, realize, seek, settle, share, spend, suffer, support, suppose, succeed, smell 短语 break down break up break out break in call at call out call on call for come down come up come in come out come on come across come along get along get away get back get down get in get on get off get through give back give in give out give away give up go away go by go on go out go over look after look at look for look out look up look down look forward to make up make out make from make in make fun of put away put on put up put out put down take in take out take away take on take down take up take off take place turn into turn off turn on turn to turn down turn up turn out turn over set out set up set off set free work on work out carry on carry out hear from hear of join in join up pay for pay off pick up pick out point to point out 易混淆的词(形状类似 / 意义相近的词汇) effort, affect, afford, effect / spare, spend/ accept, except, expert, expect, accent,/ invite, invent, invention, invitation / satisfy, satisfaction, satisfied, satisfactory / pleasant, pleased / certain, curtain, contain /impress, improve, prove /curious, serious / complete, compete / compare, prepare, repair / hard, hardly / kitchen, chicken /, protect, prevent, pretend / price, prize / quantity, quality / pollution, population / remain, remind / be left ,remain / research, search / request, respect / produce, product, production… 易拼错的单词 central, century, destroy, secretary, discussion, decision, develop, envelope,receive, ceiling, belief, government, experience, material, famous, interrupt … 词汇学习 --- 词不离句 l Problems arise frequently and we are kept busy solving one problem after another. l The financial crisis which resulted from the U.S. subprime crisis has now resulted in job cuts throughout the world. 词汇学习 --- 一词多义 如 present 一词具有多种词性和意义,请区分不同用法:

l l l l

I’m just going out to get some presents for my sisters. (n.礼物) How many people were present at the meeting?(adj.在场的) They presented flowers to their teacher.(v.赠送) He presented his views and then sat down.(v.提出)

l Those present at the meeting(出席会议的) were worried about the present financial situation.(目前的金融形势。 present, adj.目前的,现在的) 词汇学习 --- 比较 l l l l be well known as, be well known for, be known to result from, result in date back to, date back, date from, be familiar to / be familiar with

词汇学习 --- 总结归类 l have a history of / have an area of / have a population of / with a history of… l be filled with / be crowded with / be furnished with / be equipped with / be decorated with / l start as, be known as, serve as, act as

l be well known / be well paid / be well dressed be well clothed /be well housed / be well fed /be well rewarded/ l l l l a well-kept secret / a well-behaved boy / a well-motivated student personally = in my opinion hopefully = It is hoped that; I hope be mentally and physically healthy

提高记忆词汇的科学性 l l 求理解:“你所不理解的东西是你无法占有的。” “知其义而明其根。” 勤复习:及时复习对巩固所学词汇能起到事半功倍的效果。

l 巧记忆:利用形象记忆,概念记忆,逻辑记忆,情绪记忆,循环记忆,视听 记忆等。 l 多动笔:“好脑袋不如烂笔头”。学思结合,手脑并用,养成 “不动笔墨不 读书”的好习惯.对于不容易记住的词汇更要多动笔写,比单纯口背目记效果要好 得多。 l 使用。 抓重点: 立足于全面,系统,突出重点,对常用词汇进行重点记忆理解

2、最后冲刺语法备考重点:强化中级语法 ① 时态的灵活运用 ② 非谓语动词的理解运用 ③ 从句的灵活运用 ④ 采用多种多样的形式验收所学语法知识:如填空、翻译、造句、听写等。 掌握基本语法: 时态要理清 l 确) l He had lived in Shanghai for three years before he moved to Beijing. (正确) l l l l He was writing a letter this morning. He wrote a letter this morning. He had written a letter before I went to see him. He has written a letter today. He lived in Shanghai for three years. Then, he went to Beijing. (正

从句之间的辨析,不要误用 l No matter what / where / when / who/ which / how / whether /…引导 让步状语从句。 l whatever / whoever / wherever / however…. 引导让步状语从句,引 导主语从句,宾语从句,表语从句等 What 用在主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句等, 但是不能用在定语从句中。 l l I live in what is called Fenghua. I live in the place that is called Fenghua.

定语从句中的关系词与状语从句中的引导词: l l He lives near the big tree, which is nearly 100 years old. He lives near where stands the big tree.

名词性从句之间的相互转变,定语从句与同位语从句的区分: l He put forward the suggestion that everyone should plant trees to protect our environment. (同位语从句) l He suggested that everyone should plant trees to protect our environment. (宾语从句)

l His suggestion was that everyone should plant trees to protect our environment. (表语从句) l The suggestion that he put forward at the meeting (定语从句) was that everyone should plant trees to protect our environment 正确理解和把握英语思维方式 It is … before … l l l It was only a few days before he came back. It won’t be long before he comes back. It will be only 18 days before the New Year comes.

It is … since… l l l It is nearly one year since he moved away. It is nearly one year since he lived here. It is nearly three years since he entered this school.

until / till 句型 l l They waited until 1:30 They didn’t start his work until 1:30.

背诵和熟读好词好句 l l l l l l l It is a hard job for me. → It’s really a challenge to me. Is there any possibility that you could pick me up at the airport? There is no doubt that he is qualified for the job. There is no need for such a meeting. There is no need to cry/ to hide/to dial the number. It is no use doing… It is no good doing …

3、最后冲刺阅读备考重点:突破阅读技巧 你是否有以下影响阅读效率的阅读行为和不良的阅读习惯? l l l l 你是否读得非常慢,非常仔细,不相信自己能全部理解所读的材料; 阅读时你的嘴唇和舌头是否在动; 在阅读时你的头是否随着所读文字符号的位置而左右移动; 你是否经常回读,即读过的东西又重新读一遍,甚至两三遍;

l l 词; l l

你是否读什么体裁都是一样的速度; 阅读时总用铅笔或手指指着书上的每一行左右移动,似乎怕遗漏一个 一边读一边念出声; 一边读一边逐句翻译;

以上都不是正确的阅读习惯,不符合阅读过程的科学规律。在实际阅读时人 的眼睛以意群为单位跳跃。 高考阅读理解题的常见失分原因: ①推得太远:这类题多出现在主旨要义题中,命题者时常设置的陷阱是添枝 加叶,用超过文章范围的结论来迷惑考生。 l 义题 l l 针对性:直接指向原文要点,范围不能太大也不能太小 醒目性:能吸引读者的注意力,唤起读者对文章的阅读兴趣 高度概括性:在最大程度上覆盖全文,体现文章主旨多出现在主旨要

②无中生有:原文中并没有提到,只是内容上有一定的联系。用一些近似的 词汇干扰考生的判断或者用自己的观点强加在作者的观点之上。这样的推断并不 能从原文中找到,选项与原文讨论的主题无关,只是无中生有罢了。 ③以偏概全:命题中通过改动文中的结论,以局部代替全部,或以部分代替 整体,以一种情形代替所有情形。也称之为一叶障目,不见泰山、或只见树木, 不见森林。 ④本末倒置:没有抓住与题干相关的关键词、段落或句子,把枝节末叶的内 容看作重要的或关键的信息。 ⑤就事论事:常出现在例证题中,题干中出现 example, case, illustration 等 相关词汇,把例子中的某个内容拿出来设置成干扰项,没有深层理解。 ⑥常识判断:命题者在选项中加入了常识性的判断,让考生误认为是正确的 选项,或者考生自己用与原文无关的常识来判断,从而忘记了原文中作者的观 点。如果考生忽略了以原文为依据的原则, 单凭自身的经验或从常识出发,都 有可能误选。 ⑦过于绝对化:在推论时,读者把作者原本客观的描述用极端的、完全否定 的或者完全肯定的方式表达出来。 ⑧正反混淆:原文中被作者肯定的了内容在选项中予以否认,或者是原文中 给予负面评价的信息在选项中得到了肯定。 ⑨因果颠倒:在分析原因和解释现象的阅读理解题中,命题者常常将概念的 主次关系颠倒,把原文中的原因变成干扰项中的结果,或者把行为和目的的顺序 打乱来制造干扰。 ⑩张冠李戴:这种错误常见于应用文体、说明文和议论文体中,也叫信息错。

高考阅读理解题高分对策: l 加强阅读技巧的培养:

寻读、略读等,寻找信息和把握大意。鉴于高考阅读的命题趋势,阅读理解 题材、体裁多样化的特点,根据文章的不同体裁和形式采取相应的阅读方法和技 巧。如故事性记叙文可采取“顺读法”, 先文后题,以便找准关键词句,领会主旨大 意,而篇幅较长的应用文(如广告等)则可采取“逆读法”,先题后文。 l 利用构词法、定语从句、同位语或同位语从句、上下文等,培养猜测 生词的能力。 l 分析长难句,准确理解全文。

例 1:2000 NMET 短文 C 中的第一句:Decision-thinking is not unlike poker — it often matters not only what you think, but also what others think you think and what you think they think you think. 这一句中就有 6 个 think,它的大意是“做决策犹如打扑克,重要的常常不仅 在于你怎么想,还在于别人认为你怎么想,以及你认为别人怎样琢磨你的想法。” 例 2:The American economic system is organized around a basically private-enterprise, market-oriented economy in which consumers largely determine what shall be produced by spending their money in the marketplace for those goods and services that they want most. [参考译文]美国的经济是以基本的私有企业和市场导向经济为架构的,在这 种经济中,消费者很大程度上通过在市场上为那些他们最想要的货品和服务付费 来决定什么应该被制造出来。 l 进行限时阅读训练,提高阅读速度和理解的准确率。

4、最后冲刺书面表达备考重点:突破作文 高考英语作文正向开放性发展,并以培养学生的创新能力为目的。它具有以 下几个特点:紧扣《新课标》、《牛津高中英语》教材和《2010 湖南高考英语 考试说明》对考生提出的要求,所选话题贴近学生学习生活,为学生所熟悉;易于 表达,学生有话可写并且能够写;要求考生能够发表自己的观点和感想;留给学生 足够的写作空间。 测试要点:1)正确运用语法(用词、结构搭配、句型 、句式)来准确地道地传 达信息。2)运用一定的写作策略和篇章技巧(段落的构成、句子与句子和段落与 段落间的过渡等)将信息得体流畅的传达,以达到交流的目的。

①高分作文基本特点:完成试题所有任务。 l 覆盖所有内容要点;

l 运用较多的语法结构(名词性,状语从句,定语从句,非谓语动词,倒装句) 与词汇(高级词汇和高级句型,语言地道,语法错误少,有亮点等; l 思路清晰,有效地使用语句间的连接成分,使全文结构紧凑;

语法结构与词汇方面有些许错误,但为尽量使用较复杂结构或较高级 l 词汇,具备较强的语言运用能力。

②书面表达最忌: l l l 等)。 l 字(字迹潦草 ,字迹不清)。 不分段(分段是为了文章更清晰,至少要分成两段)。 低级错误(主谓不一致,时态不一致,词性变化不正确,单词拼写错误 词汇堆砌(整篇几乎无完整句子,一塌糊涂,某个词汇过频重复使用)。

③书面表达常见错误 l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l 动词的基本时态不一致 错用语态 错用第三人称单数或忘记用 错用句型 错用非谓语形式 词义、词形混淆不清 各种词法和句法错误 逻辑混乱 用汉语的语法写英语句子 无合适的开头和结尾 无篇章连接结构或词汇 审题粗糙,遗漏要点 格式错误 文体错误 单词拼写基本功差

④解题建议:

l l l

认真审题, 明确写作目的和文体要求。 理清内容要点,确定写作顺序。 依据要点,写出提纲。

l 选择熟悉句型和用语组织 (10-12 个) 句子,表达意思为准, 切忌直译, 完成草稿 。 l l 校对细节,检查语句和措辞, 在草稿纸上完成所有改动。 将定稿誊写到在试卷上, 不再作任何改动。


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