单元双基学习目标 Ⅰ. 词汇学习 familiar ， be familiar with ， cap ， note ， can ( n . ) ， hammer ， memory， tin ， marry ， get married ， single ， square ， otherwise ， perform ， wedding ， musical ， generation ， learn， by heart ， in praise of， hero ， nowadays， passerby ( 复数形式是： passers - by )， pattern， root ，thought ，gay ，ray ，part ( vt . ) ， soul ，iron，ironing ，board， whisper，jazz， folk， instrument， violin ， earn one's living ， drum ， carol ， flaming， fade Ⅱ. 交际英语 1. I think at the beginning we'd rather have … 2. I'd prefer them not to… 3. I'd rather have … to start . 4. I'd rather not have … 5. Have you decided … ? 6. I've decided to … Ⅲ. 语法学习 - ing 形式作表语、定语和宾语补足语的用法
1 . 动词的 ing 形式包括名词和现在分词，二者都可 作表语，高二英语第二十一单元 Music 。如： Our job is playing all kinds of music . ( 动名词 ) The music they are playing sounds so exciting . ( 现 在分词 ) 注： 一般来讲， 动名词 ( 短语 ) 作表语， 主表可互换， 即：Playing all kinds of music is our job . 现在分词作表语，表明主语的性质和特征，主表不可互 换。 2 . - ing 形式做定语可以表示 1 ) 所修饰名词的用 途。如： a waiting room ( =a room for waiting ) 候车室 a walking stick ( =a stick for walking ) 手杖 a sleeping car ( =a car for sleeping ) 卧车 2 ) 所修饰名词正在进行的动作，可以换成定语从句形 式。 如： a waiting man ( =a man who is waiting ) 正等待着 的男人 a sleeping child ( =a child who is sleeping ) 正 睡觉的孩子 a walking man ( =a man who is walking ) 正散步的 男人
3 . 在 see , hear , feel , watch , notice 等感观 动词后可以用 - ing 形式做宾语补足语。这时 - ing 形式 和句子的宾语之间存在着逻辑上的主谓关系， 并且 - ing 形 式表示宾语正在进行的动作。如： He saw a girl getting on the tractor . ( =He saw a girl and the girl was getting on the tractor . ) 他 看见一个女孩在往拖拉机上爬。 Do you hear someone knocking at the door? 有人敲 门你听见了吗? Ask the students to use the information from the reading passage to describe what they have learnt about music . Kinds of music More details Folk music It has been passed down from one generation to another . At first it was never written down . People learned the songs from their families , relatives , neighbours and friends in the same village . These songs were about the country life , the seasons , animals and plants , and about love and sadness in people's lives . African music
It plays an important part in people's lives , especially for work , and at festivals and weddings , when people dance all night long . Indian music It's not written down . There is a basic pattern of notes which the musician follows . But a lot of modern music is also written . India also produces films with music , and millions of records are sold every year . Music in the Caribbean The slaves who were brought from Africa developed their own kind of music . West Indians make musical instruments out of large oil cans . They hit different parts of the drum with hammers to produce different notes . This type of music has become very famous in Britain and is very good music to dance to . Jazz Jazz was born in the USA around 1890 . It came from work songs sung by black people and had its roots in Africa . Jazz started developing in the 1920s in the southern states , Soon it was played by white musicians , too , and reached other parts of the USA . 1 . familiar 意为“世所周知，熟悉的；看惯的，听
惯的，耳熟的” ，其后通常跟介词 to 连用。例如： a familiar face / voice 熟悉的脸 / 声音 His name is familiar to me , but I haven't met him . These tales are familiar to Chinese children . familiar 还可以表示“ ( 某人 ) 熟悉 ( 某事 ) 的， 精通……的，通晓……的” ，其后通常可以跟介词 with 连 用。 例如： He is more familiar with modern jazz than I . I am not familiar with the names of plants . 通过以上例句我们可以看出： ①事物当主语时，作“为人所熟悉”解，与 to 连用； 但人当主语时，作“熟悉某事物”解时，则与 with 连用。 又如： Alpine plants are familiar to him . ( =He is familiar with alpine plants . ) ②人当主语而与 with 连用时，with 之后若接事物的 话就是“熟悉”之意，若接人的话就变成了“亲密”之意， 但这个“亲密”往往很容易变成“亲昵、放肆” 。 2 . marry 用作动词，意为“结婚；嫁，娶，与……结 婚” ，其名词形式为 marriage , 形容词形式为 married 。 例如：He married a classmate from high school .
Kate married a Frenchman last year . He married his daughter to a doctor . Mr Smith married Miss Kate five years ago . 另外，短语 be married ( to ) 意为“与……结婚， 嫁给” ；get marred ( to ) 意为“与……结婚，嫁给……” ； marry sb . to 意为“把……嫁给……” 。例如： The old couple have already been married for fifty years . She has got married to a man from her hometown . They married their youngest daughter to a man with a lot of money . 3 . perform 用作动词，意为“执行，完成，做；演出， 表演” 。例如： They computer performs these calculations with surprising speed . The surgeon was performed a dangerous operation . The singer had never performed in Beijing before . He will be performing on the flute tonight . 4 . praise 可用作及物动词，意为“赞扬，表扬” ，例 如： He was praised for his good works . They praised him for risking his life to save his
comrade . He was praised for finishing his work ahead of time . praise 还可以用作名词，意为“赞扬；赞扬的话 ( 用 复数 ) ” 。例如： My books received high praise from general readers . The teacher's praise had greatly encouraged us . The praise of mine usually made the students feel very happy . 5 . nowadays 用作副词，表示与以前相比，意为“时 下；现今” ，常与一般现在时动词连用。例如： Nowadays a lot of people go abroad . Nowadays young people prefer watching TV to reading books . They used to read novels , but nowadays they read newspapers . 1 . in praise of 意为“称赞，赞扬 ( =to praise ) ” 。 例如： He made a report in praise of country life . We all spoke in praise of the boy's courage and bravery . 2 . learn … by heart 意为“记住；背诵” 。例如： I have learned the reading materials by heart .
Have you learned by heart the main points of the article? It's very difficult for the children to learn the poem by heart . 3 . earn one's living 意为“谋生；挣钱” 。例如： He had to earn his living at the his early age . The fishermen earned their living by fishing . Some people earn their living by writing stories . 4 . play the guitar / piano / violin / flute , 英 语中表示乐器的名词前通常要用定冠词。 I used to play the flute after school , but I usually operate the computer at present . She couldn't learn to play the piano quite well without a teacher . Which can you play better , the guitar or the flute? The lady often enjoyed herself by playing the violin after supper 1 . I'd prefer them not to play too loudly at the beginning . 我宁愿让他们开始时别那么大声演奏。 prefer 宁愿……，喜欢…… ( 甚于喜欢 ) prefer sb . to do sth . 宁可 ( 某人 ) 做某事 ( 不 定式作宾补 )
They preferred their son to go to college . They preferred her not to go with them . prefer sth . / doing to sth . / doing 喜欢……而 不喜欢 prefer tea to coffee . I prefer reading novels to watching TV . prefer to do… rather than do … 宁愿…而不愿… I prefer to go to the movies rather than stay home . =I prefer going to the movies to staying home . =I would rather go to the movies than stay home . 2 . Otherwise we won't be able to hear ourselves talk . 否则我们就听不到自己讲话的声音了。 ( 1 ) otherwise ( corj ) 否则，不然， =or =or else . Hurry up , otherwise you'll be late . Don't move , otherwise I'll shoot you . ( 2 ) hear sb . do sth . 听某人做某事 不定式作宾补省 to 的动词可按下面顺口溜记忆。 五看，三使役，二听，一感，半帮助，不定式作宾补， to 字要删去，主动变被动，宾补变主补，to 字要恢复。五 看：see , watch , notice , look at , observe ; 三使 役：have , let , make ; 二听： hear , listen to ; 一 感觉：feel ; 半帮助：help
I saw Xiao Li enter the room just now . →Xiao Li was seen to enter the room just now . help my mother ( to ) do some housework . → My mother is helped to do some housework . 3. Folk music has been passed down from one generation to another . In this way stories were passed on from one person to another . pass down / on 传下去，传授，传给 The news was passed on / down by word of mouth . The teachers pass on their knowledge to the students . pass by 经历 pass over 不重视 pass through 经历、 穿过等 4. On festivals they used to act and sing in praise of heroes who lived long ago . It plays an important part in people's lives , especially for work , and at festivals and weddings … 它在人们的生活中起着重要的作用，特别是为了劳动，以及 在节日和婚礼上… on festivals at festivals 在节日。 如果指节日当天， 应用 on 。 on Christmas Day 圣诞节那天 on Christmas Eve
圣诞节前夕 on New Year's Day 元旦那天 on Children's Day 在儿童节那天。但如果把节日视作一个时节，指节日的 整个时期， 则应用 at。 at Christmas 在圣诞节期间 at New Year 新年期间。 in praise of 意为“赞扬” The leader spoke in praise of the man who had given his life for the cause . 领袖称赞那位为事业而捐躯的 人。 介词 in + n . + of 常见短语 in front of 在……前面 in spite of 尽管，虽然 in charge of 负责 in favour of 支持……，赞成…… in face of 面对……，在……面前 in search of 寻找 5. India produces more films than any other country in the world . 印度摄制的影片比世界上任何其它国家都 多。 =India produces the most films in the world . ※用比较级表达最高级的意义。 Xiao Li is taller than any other student in our class . =Xiao Li is the tallest student in our class . 小 李比我们班其它同学都高。 ( other 后的名词应用单数形式 ) 。
比较级应注意避免和包括自身的对象比。 比较级 + than + any other + 单数名词 比较级 + than + all the other + 复数名词 比较级 + than + anyone else Mary is taller than any other student in the class . Mary is taller than any other girl in the class . Mary is taller than anyone else in the class . Mary is taller than all the boys in the class . Who Is More Useful? Once upon a time there were quarrels among the letters . One day letter A asked letter C a question : “Who is useful , I or you?” Letter C answered at once , “Of course , I am more useful than you . ” “No , I don't think so . I think I am more useful . I am the first letter in a dictionary . ”said letter A . “No , ” said letter C , “in the word ‘dictionary’ , I am the third letter , and you are behind me , the eighth one . How can you be more useful than I am? ” “Let's go and ask letter T . Maybe he will answer
this question . ” But letter T said , “I think I am more useful than either of you . Because in the word ‘letter’ I appear twice . While there is neither of you . Do you understand? How can you two be more useful?” “But , ”said letter A , “in the word ‘again’ , I appear twice , too . ” “In the word ‘cock’ , I also appear twice , ” said letter C . Then he asked letter T , “Where are you in this word? Do you appear even once in it? ” Letter T could not open his mouth , so he said nothing . At last they heard the dictionary say , “ Don't quarrel with each other . I think each letter has his function . We are all part of one big family . So let's do our work together , shall we?” 1 . Why were there quarrels among the letters? Because _____ A . letter A is the first one in the vocabulary , he is more useful . B . letter C doesn't appear in the word “again” . C . letter T appears twice in the word “letter” .
D . each letter said that he was more useful . 2 . Letter T said that he _____ when he met letter A and C . A . was more useful than all of them B . letter C doesn't appear in the word “again” C . letter T appears twice in the word “letter” D . each letter said that he was more useful . 2 . Letter T said that he _____ when he met letter A and C . A . was more useful than all of them B . was as useful as both of them C . was more useful than either of them D . was so useful that many words needed him 3 . The dictionary asked _____ A . one letter to quarrel with another . B . those letters to stop to quarrel . C . those letters to form a big family . D . every letter to work together with the others because each of them has his own function . 4 . How about the dictionary's words? A . Fine . B . Bad . C . Just so - so . D . Not so good .
赏析：这个小故事说明：只强调个人的作用不可取，只 有大家齐心协力，才能发挥更大的作用，取得更大的成就。 1 . D . 字母间发生争吵，是因为每个字母都自认为自己比 别人更有用。2 . C . 本题考查 all of , both of 和 either of 的用法，及 more that , as + 形容词 ( 副词 ) + as 的 区别等。D 是错的，因为 T 并没有那样讲。3 . D . 说明个 体只有和群众在一起，才能发挥自己的作用。4 . A . 词典 之所以是词典，就因为它是集体智慧和合作的结晶，所以它 的话是金玉良言。 在一般情况下，汉英词序基本是一致的，但是，由于两 种语言的表达习惯不同和东西方文化的差异，在汉英翻译中 往往会出现词序错位的现象。请你对英语思考后，译成恰当 的汉语。 1. food and clothing 2. track and field 3. northwest 4. young and old 5. sooner or later 6. land and water 7. you and I 8. back and forth 9. heavy and light 10. old and new 11. right and left 12. heat and cold 13. fire and water 14. rain or shine 15. rich and poor 16. eat and drink 17. long and thin 18. sweat and blood 19. back and belly 20. bed and board 21. flesh and blood 22. joy and sorrow 23. iron and steel 24. water and mountain 25. short and long 26. arms and hands 27. life
and death 28. baby boy 29. ourselves and the enemy 30. hard and soft 31. chemistry and physics 32. loss and gain 33. month and year 34. East China 35. here and now 36. bride and bridegroom 37. art and science 38. north , south , east and west 39. twos and threes 40. small and medium sizes 答案：1、衣食 2、田径 3、西北 4、老少 5、迟早 6、 水陆 7、我你 8、前后 9、轻重 10、新旧 11、左右 12、 冷热 13、 水火 14、 晴雨 15、 贫富 16、 饮食 17、 细长 18、 血汗 19、 腹背 20、 膳宿 21、 血肉 22、 悲欢 23、 钢铁 24、 山水 25、 长短 26. 手臂 27、 死活 28、 男婴 29、 敌我 30、 软硬 31、理化 32、增损 33、年月 34、华东 35、此时此 地 36、新郎新娘 37、科学艺术 38、东南西北 39、三三两 两 40、中小型 单元语法发散思维 非谓语作定语的区别
动名词、分词和不定式都能作定语，它们在用法上区别 如下： ※ 动名词作定语只表示被修饰词的用途，不定式作定 语通常表示未来的动作或含情态意味，现在分词作定语表示 正在发生的动作或存在的状态，过去分词表示已经完成的动 作或无时间性的行为。 This is a sleeping car . ( 动名词作定语表示用途，
它可转换为：This is a car for sleeping . ) A sleeping child is in the room . ( 现在分词的主 动形式作定语表示一个正在进行的动作，它可转换成： A child who is sleeping is in the room . ) The bike being repaired now is mine . ( 现在分词 的被动形式，表示正在进行的动作，它可转换成：The bike which is being repaired now is mine . ) I'm not sure which is the road leading to the hospital . (现在分词短语不表示正在进行的动作而表示存 在的状态，它可转换成：I'm not sure which is the road that leads to the hospital . ) The fallen leaves . (过去分词表示一个完成的动作， The leaves that have fallen . ) I have two letters to write . ( 不定式表示将来的 动作) ※ 不定式作定语，一般只能放在被修饰词之后，分词 作定语即可放在被修饰词之前，也可以放在被修饰词之后； 通常单个的词放前， 短语放在后， 现在分词的被动形式放后。 例如： I have a friend living in London . (短语) China belongs to the developing country . ( 单个 的词)
The building being built now is a hospital . ( 现 在分词的被动式) The man dressed in a new suit is our manager . ( 短 语) Only by practice will you be able to improve your spoken English . (单个的词) Mary needs a dictionary to refer to . ( 不定式) ※ 分词所修饰的名词就是该分词的逻辑主语。若被修 饰的名词与分词之间存在着逻辑上的主动关系，即被修饰的 名词是动作的执行者，则用现在分词，若是被动关系，即被 修饰的名词是动作的承受者，可用现在分词的被动式或过去 分词。它们俩主要从时间上区别，现在分词被动式表示正在 进行的动作；过去分词表示完成的动作或无时间性，只表被 动关系。例如： There is a river running around our school . ( 主 动关系) The watch being repaired now is hers . (被动关系， 正在进行的动作) He is an English teacher liked by all his students . (表被动关系) Japan is a developed country . (表完成，表被动) ※ 心理反应状态动词，如：excite , fright , move ,
tire , interest , puzzle , disappoint 等，同现在分词 作定语，表示“令人……” ，被修饰的词通常是物，用过去 分词作定语，被修饰的词通常是人。例如： What disappointing news it is! Don't make fun of the frightened child . 注意： puzzling expression “令人迷惑的表情” ； puzzled expression (本身)迷惑的表情。 ※ 下列情况下常用不定式作定语。 1 . 在被修饰的词前有形容词最高级、序数词以及 the last , the only , the next 等后作定语的时候，只能用 不定式作定语。例如： He is always the first to come . The next man to come was Tom . This is the largest ship to be serving as a seaside hotel in our country . 2 . have +宾语的句型中，常用不定式作定语。例如： I have a lot of questions to ask . He has nothing to worry about . 3 . 在 way , pleasure , chance , plan 等名词后常 用不定式或 of +动名词， 但在 ability , failure , promise 后只能用不定式。例如： I had no chance to speak (或 of speaking) to him .
His failure to pass the exam surprised us . 4 . 表示未来的动作。例如： He has two letters to write . 5 . 与被修饰的词有同位、动状关系的通常只能用不定 式作定语。例如： I have the ability to speak a foreign language . (同位关系) I'm not sure which restaurant to eat at . A good place to eat at is the Peace Restaurant . 1 . 汤姆吃完早饭急急忙忙去上学。 [ 误 ]After breakfast Tom was hurrying to go to school . [正]After breakfast Tom was hurrying to school . [析]hurry(=move quickly)本身含有“走”之意，后面 不可再接 go, walk , run 之类的动词，但可接动词不定式 或名词。 例如：We have to hurry away to catch the bus . She hurried to the station . 2 . 我们应当全心全意为人民服务。 [误]We should serve for the people heart and soul . [正]We should serve the people heart and soul . [正]We should work for the people heart and soul . [析]serve 本身有“work for”之意。作及物动词用时，
后面不可再接介词 for。 3 . 战争结束以后，她成了一名教师。 [误]After the end of the war, she became a teacher . [正]After the war, she became a teacher . [析]句中 after 是介词，有“在……以后”的意思；end 是名词，意思是“结束” ，用了 after，就不可再用 end。 4 . 只要校长一回来，我就立刻告诉你。 [误]As soon as the president returns, I will let you know at once . [正]As soon as the president returns, I will let you know . [析]as soon as 有“立刻”之意，从句中用了 as soon as，主句中就不能再用 at once, immediately, right away, right now 之类的词了。 5 . 这是一部极好的词典。 [误]This is a very excellent dictionary . [正]This is an excellent dictionary . [ 析 ]excellent, wonderful 等 词 含 有 “ 极 好 的 (extremely good)”之意，不能用 very 修饰。再如：This is a wonderful film . 6 . 大家都非常喜欢这个小男孩。 [误]Everyone all likes the little boy very much .
[正]Everyone likes the little boy very much . [析]everyone 有 “每个人， 大家” 的意思， 用了 everyone 或 everybody， 不就必再用 all 了。 7．这男孩名叫杨洋。 [误]The name of the boy is called Yang yang . [正]The name of the boy is Yang yang . [析]name 与 be called 不能同时使用，因为 name 与 be called 在语义上是重复的。 我们通常说： My name is Li Biao . 但不能说：My name is called Li Biao . 8 . 踢足球是我最喜爱的运动。 [误]Playing football is my most favourite sport . [正]Playing football is my favourite sport . [析]favourite 本身有“最喜爱(like best)”之意，前 面不必再用 most 修饰了。如 ： My favourite hobby is collecting stamps . 9 . 如果你知道这个答案，就举手。 [误]Raise your hand up if you know the answer . [正]Raise your hand if you know the answer . [正]Put your hand if you know the answer . [析]raise 有“举起”之意，后面不必再加 up，它与 put up 同义。 10 . 请把这个句子再重复一遍。
[误]Please repeat the sentence again . [正]Please repeat the sentence . [正]Please say the sentence again . [析]repeat 本身有“say or do sth . again”之意， 用了 repeat，就不必再用 again 了，但可说：Say it again . 11 . 你们应当把试卷保管好。 [ 误 ]You should take good care of your papers carefully . [正]You should take good care of your papers . [析] take good care of 有“认真保管好”之意， 后 面不要再用副词 carefully . 12 . 你喜欢喝茶还是喜欢咖啡？ [误]Which do you prefer more, tea or coffee? [正]Which do you prefer, tea or coffee? [正]Which do you like better, tea or coffee? [析]prefer 本身有“较喜欢(like better)”之意，如 果句中用了 prefer， 一般不再用 more 了。 说明：假如你是班长，你们系在布告牌上出了一个学术 讲座的英文书面通知，请你将其内容以口头通知的形式告诉 全班同学。词数：80—120 A LECTURE Speaker : Prof . J . M . Collins .
Subject : Modern Methods of English teaching Time : July 8 , 1997 , at 2 : 00 p . m . Place : Lecture Hall 2 English Department Office 【创新园地】答案： Dear Classmates , May I have your attention , please! I have an announcement to make . Our department office has put up a notice on the bulletin board . The notice tells us that Professor J . M . Collins will give a lecture on Modern Methods of English - teaching . It will be held at 2 : 00 this afternoon on July 8 , 1998 in Lecture Hall 2 . The lecture is of great help to us . I'm sure we can learn a lot from it . Everyone is expected to attend the lecture . Don't miss the good chance . Please get there a little earlier . That's all . Thank you!